Extended Reality (XR)

Extended Reality (XR) is a simple term used to describe emerging technologies like Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). 

XR technologies are being rapidly developed and deployed across sectors like education and industry and will transform digital communication and human interaction over the next decade. This site is a compilation of resources designed to help you understand the use cases for XR. 

Why is it Important to Explore XR? 

XR is predicted to be part of a digital shift from 2D to 3D.

The 1990’s question: “What is the Internet?” is sounding a lot like the 2022 question: “What is the Metaverse?” 

Those leading the way in this landscape will define use cases, nurture the technology, invent complementary technologies, and address the challenges. Although there are barriers to mass adoption of fully immersive XR technology, accessed using VR Headsets, for example, it is an important landscape to explore to understand the novel challenges and opportunities that will evolve. If the use cases you see below are possible now, consider what these technologies are to become in the next 5-10 years.

“Global Augmented Reality (AR)  and Virtual Reality (VR) Market  will grow by $125.19 billion during 2020-2024”. 

Technavio (2020)

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Background on XR 

XR is a wave of hardware, applications, and immersive experiences that exist now and are predicted to be part of the next advancement of the internet (sometimes referred to as the Metaverse). 

 

What is Virtual Reality (VR)? What is Augmented Reality (AR)?

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In VR, the user can feel like they are present in a digitally created space. The brain treats the VR experience as a real experience and the viewer feels physically present in the environment (Bailenson, 2018). It's not suprising that workforce training is an area of early adoption for VR given that experience is the number one affordance of the modality. VR experiences are also being used for increasing motivation and engagement. Experiences that can be leveraged across an organization by many people or experiences that are dangerous, too costly, or not possible in real life are good use cases for VR. Imagine being able to interact with 3 dimensional, life-size chemical structures. Interacting with life-size molecules, in real-time, with other people, isn’t possible in real life but can be possible with VR.

VR applications range from being non-immersive (viewed with a computer or mobile device) to fully immersive (viewed with a Head-Mounted Display, or HMD). Recent interest in VR is attributed to mass mobile technology production that advanced the component technology behind XR and reduced the cost of access to XR experiences (Bailenson, 2018). Watch the short video clip below to get a sense of how VR is being used in teaching and learning. Stanford VR Researcher, Jeremy Bailenon, talks about a course on the topic of VR that is taught inside a VR platform.

 
 

AR applications ‘add-on’ to a user’s physical world to enhance it digitally. In a teaching and learning context, imagine engineering students using their mobile device to display text and visual overlays while performing electrical procedure training in the lab. An AR activity like this was explored as a solution to alleviate over-populated labs while helping students master specific competencies and proficiency (Martín-Gutiérrez et al., 2015).  AR experiences are called assisted reality or mixed reality depending on whether the user feels like the digital enhancement is overlaid onto or integrated withn their physical environment, as described in Fig. 1 below (Rauschnabel et al., 2022). MR is considered a complex form of AR and often associated with the Microsoft HoloLens device. 

1-s2.0-S074756322200111X-gr5_lrg
Fig 1. Four examples on the Assisted-Mixed-Reality Continuum.

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Emergence of XR in the Workplace

Scan the list below to get a sense of the a breadth of use cases for immersive technology that are emerging in Industry.  To learn more about Industry Verticals, visit the VR/AR Association.

uWaterloo Library Login may be required to access articles below.

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Teaching and Learning Examples


“XR is an effective technology for active and experiential learning, enabling users to gain concrete experience that might not otherwise be available. By providing “hands on” experience, XR helps promote student engagement with learning materials and deepens student interaction with complex problems.”

Pomerantz & Rode (2020)

The potential of XR as a learning tool is gaining interest from researchers across the disciplines. The examples below show a breadth of XR use cases for teaching and learning.  

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uWaterloo Library Login may be required to access articles below.

See XR Additional Reading by Topic Area for more.


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Where to Start: XR for Teaching and Learning

Consider the variety of ways below that you can introduce students to immersive technology (both as creators or consumers of the technologies). 360 VR, Social VR platforms, Open Content for XR, AR and VR development tools, and custom Simulations/Games are all part of the growing ecosystem of types of immersive experiences that are emerging across the disciplines. Picking the right experience for your students will depend on your goals, learning outcomes, audience, and either your comfort level with the new technology or your need for custom support. 

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  • Wavemakers is a Work-Integrated Learning Program focused on introducing students to immersive technologies. This innovative program offers a virtual reality campus where students will meet and interact with other students, and mentors, participate in expert sessions and even attend a virtual career fair with 40+ employers. 
  • Metaverse 2030: Experiencing SDGs in virtual reality is UN sponsored contest to help students gain in demand, immersive skills while raising awareness about the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).   

With 360VR, a user can navigate up, down, and around in a full circle, allowing them to feel immersed in the environment of the photograph or video. 360VR is a good starting point for showing students immersive technology since there are easy to use creation tools and free content sources. Future students can explore photospheres to tour University of Waterloo Campus. The Chemical Engineering (ChE) 360° Interactive 3D VR Distillation Laboratory is an example of a desktop, 360 VR tour (connected photospheres). It is an experience that is designed to prepare students for their inperson, safety training.

Examples

Guides

Social VR platforms enable students and instructors to collaborate in 3D with a desktop or with a VR headset in real-time. Social VR has the potential to break down physcial distance by offering users the perception of more digital presence than a 2D, flat screen, Webinar might, for example. The potential for Social VR is a wide open area of research for teaching and learning and is also rapidly advancing in the business sector. Educators are starting to see how Social VR may impact future professions. For example, uOttawa's Faculty of Law takes moot trials to the metaverse, is an example of how a discpline is examing future impacts of the technology through experiencing it firsthand.

The platforms below offer tools to build classrooms or provide prebuilt social experiences. 

Guides

Platforms

Virtual World Building Tools

XR creation tools enable instructors and students to create immersive experiences. 

Create AR Using These 5 Apps

Create VR experiences that work on the web.

Powerful development platforms that enable you to create 3D, 2D VR, and AR applications.

Simulations  

  • Games Institute (G.I.) is a uWaterloo research centre that creates custom XR simulations.

360 Virtual Tours


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XR Accessibility, Design, and Evaluation Resources

Existing user-centred design guidelines, emerging XR guidelines, and industry knowledge bases are good starting points for designing your specific experience. Guidance provided by aforementioned sources can be adjusted for the new abilities and requirements of XR experiences.

As with 2D experiences, best practice for 3D XR experiences is to proactively design with accessibility in mind. Accessibility challenges exist in 3D spaces.  

 

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  1. Organize the Spatial Environment to Maximize Efficiency
  2. Create Flexible Interactions and Environments
  3. Prioritize User’s Comfort
  4. Keep It Simple: Do Not Overwhelm the User
  5. Design Around Hardware Capabilities and Limitations
  6. Use Cues to Help Users Throughout Their Experience
  7. Create a Compelling XR Experience
  8. Build upon Real World Knowledge
  9. Provide Feedback and Consistency
  10. Allow Users to Feel in Control of the Experience
  11. Allow for Trial and Error  

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University of Waterloo Extended Reality XR AR/VR Community of Practice

The uWaterloo Extended Reality AR/VR Community of Practice  explores XR topics through termly events and a Teams channel for sharing XR news and events of interest. Suggest future topics or request to join the UW AR/VR group by contacting Gillian Dabrowski (CEL) or Mark Morton (CTE), co-facilitators of the group.  

Previous University of Waterloo XR AR/VR Community of Practice Events


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Funding Opportunities for XR Exploration


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 AR/VR News and Organizations


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XR Activities at the University of Waterloo

 The cross-disciplinary list below shows where XR research and exploration is happening at the University of Waterloo.


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Challenges 

XR is often refered to as part of the next computing platform but there are barriers to mainstream XR use. Many of the challenges are repeats of 2D technology that persist in the 3D environment (e.g. accessibility, scalability). Infrastructure, workforce training, complementary technologies, and policy and standards need to be established. More efficacy research is needed. More content is needed. Resources below provide more information on XR challenges.

 

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One of the biggest challenges with XR is that the technology is here before the policy around its use. This particular challenge is a good reason to invest time with students into learning about the potential future impacts of these technologies.  

Cybersickness is something that 8-10% of users may experience with HMD, VR headsets. Cybersickness is a good reason to stay with desktop VR in your experiments or pilots or have a plan to provide an alternate format for people who may experience cybersickness. There is active research on cybersickness happening to investigate how to mitigate the uncomfortable feeling that might result from a mismatch of the perception of movement that is created digitally from what is actually physically happening. More is being discovered about how to design experiences to avoid sparking cybersickness in users. 

Interoperability is starting to be a focus in the XR industry. Organizations are working together to ensure experiences will work on different devices.


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Additional Reading by Topic Area 

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Ashtari, N., Bunt, A., Mcgrenere, J., Nebeling, M., & Chilana, P. K. (2020). Creating Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications: Current Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities. Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376722

Gaspar, H., Morgado, L., Mamede, H., Oliveira, T., Manjón, B., & Gütl, C. (2019). Research priorities in immersive learning technology: the perspectives of the iLRN community. Virtual Reality, 24(2), 319–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00393-x

Garzón, J., Pavón, J., & Baldiris, S. (2019). Systematic review and meta-analysis of augmented reality in educational settings. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 447–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00379-9 

González-Zamar, M.-D., & Abad-Segura, E. (2020). Implications of Virtual Reality in Arts Education: Research Analysis in the Context of Higher Education. Education Sciences, 10(9), 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090225

Hamilton, D., McKechnie, J., Edgerton, E., & Wilson, C. (2020). Immersive virtual reality as a pedagogical tool in education: a systematic literature review of quantitative learning outcomes and experimental design. Journal of Computers in Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-020-00169-2

Jensen, L., & Konradsen, F. (2018). A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies23(4), 1515–1529. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1007/s10639-017-9676-0

Martín‐Gutiérrez, J., Mora, C. E., Añorbe‐Díaz, B., & González‐Marrero, A. (2017). Virtual technologies trends in education. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(2), 469–486.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney‐Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. (2014). Effectiveness of virtual reality‐based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K‐12 and higher education: A meta‐ analysis. Computers & Education, 70, 29–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.compedu.2013.07.033

Pigatt, Y., & Braman, J. (2021). Engaging Students in a Computer Diversity Course Through Virtual Worlds. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 170-193. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch008

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda. Computers & Education, 147, 103778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103778

Sala, N. (2021). Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality in Education. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 48-73. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch003

Sun, R., Wu, Y. J., & Cai, Q. (2018). The effect of a virtual reality learning environment on learners’ spatial ability. Virtual Reality23(4), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0355-2

Wang, Y. (2021). Technical Details and Educational Applications for Virtual Reality Technologies. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 74-95. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch004

Wu, B., Yu, X., & Gu, X. (2020). Effectiveness of immersive virtual reality using head‐mounted displays on learning performance: A meta‐analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13023

Xin, Y. (2022). Influence of learning engagement on learning effect under a virtual reality (VR) environment. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 226–237. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.29451

Akcayir, M., & Akcayir, G. (2017). Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature. Educational Research Review, 20, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.edurev.2016.11.002

Pellas, N., Fotaris, P., Kazanidis, I., & Wells, D. (2018). Augmenting the learning experience in primary and secondary school education: a systematic review of recent trends in augmented reality game-based learning. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 329–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0347-2

Spitzer, M., Gsellmann, I., Hebenstreit, M., Damalas, S. & Ebner, M., (2019). A Research Agenda to Deploy Technology Enhanced Learning with Augmented Reality in Industry. Mensch und Computer 2019 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. doi: 10.18420/muc2019-ws-300-05

Sriadhi, S., Hamid, A., Sitompul, H., & Restu, R. (2022). Effectiveness of augmented reality-based learning media for engineering-physics teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.28613

Videnovik, M., Trajkovik, V., Kiønig, L. V., & Vold, T. (2020). Increasing quality of learning experience using augmented reality educational games. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79(33–34), 23861–23885. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-020-09046-7

Wang, M., Callaghan, V., Bernhardt, J., White, K., & Peña-Rios, A. (2017). Augmented reality in education and training: pedagogical approaches and illustrative case studies. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 9(5), 1391–1402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-017-0547-8

Maresky, H., Oikonomou, A., Ali, I., Ditkofsky, N., Pakkal, M., & Ballyk, B. (2018). Virtual reality and cardiac anatomy: Exploring immersive three‐dimensional cardiac imaging, a pilot study in undergraduate medical anatomy education. Clinical Anatomy32(2), 238–243. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23292
Zhang, Y., Liu, H., Kang, S., & Al-Hussein, M. (2020). Virtual reality applications for the built environment: Research trends and opportunities. Automation in Construction, 118, 103311. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103311

De Gauquier, L., Brengman, M., Willems, K., & Kerrebroeck, H. (2019). Leveraging advertising to a higher dimension: experimental research on the impact of virtual reality on brand personality impressions. Virtual Reality23(3), 235–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0344-5 

Gironacci, I. M. (2021). State of the Art of Extended Reality Tools and Applications in Business. Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Risk Management and Cyber Intelligence Advances in Information Security, Privacy, and Ethics, 105-118. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4339-9.ch008

Xu, C., Demir-Kaymaz, Y., Hartmann, C., Menozzi, M., & Siegrist, M. (2021). The comparability of consumers’ behavior in virtual reality and real life: A validation study of virtual reality based on a ranking task. Food Quality and Preference, 87, 104071. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104071

Dunnagan, C. L., Dannenberg, D. A., Cuales, M. P., Earnest, A. D., Gurnsey, R. M., & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2019b). Production and Evaluation of a Realistic Immersive Virtual Reality Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experience: Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(1), 258–262. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00705

Chang, Y., Chou, C., Chuang, M., Li, W., & Tsai, I. (2020) Effects of virtual reality on creative design performance and creative experiential learning, Interactive Learning Environments. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2020.1821717 

Kukkakorpi, M., & Pantti, M. (2020) A Sense of Place: VR Journalism and Emotional Engagement. Journalism Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1799237

Lytridis, C., & Tsinakos, A. (2018) Evaluation of the ARTutor augmented reality educational platform in tertiary education. Smart Learning Environments, 5. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1186/s40561-018-0058-x  

Martir, T. (2020, August). Performative-R: A New Way Of Storytelling. Presented at  SIGGRAPH ’20 Talks: Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. https://doi.org/10.1145/3388767.3407367 

Uskali, T., Gynnild, A., Jones, S., & Sirkkunen, E. (Eds.). (2021). Immersive Journalism as Storytelling (1st ed.). Routledge. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://openresearchlibrary.org

Mayne, R., & Green, H. (2020). Virtual reality for teaching and learning in crime scene investigation. Science & Justice, 60(5), 466–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2020.07.006

Rosales, E., Rodriguez, J., & Sheffer, A. (2019). SurfaceBrush: from virtual reality drawings to manifold surfaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 38(4), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1145/3306346.3322970

Soylucicek, S. (2019). Looking through the Sphere; Illustration in virtual reality. Global Journal of Arts Education, 9(1), 22-28. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjae.v9i2.3953  

Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Jackson, K. L., La Femina, P., Stubbs, C., Wetzel, R., Blair, J., ... & Oprean, D. (2019). Transforming Earth Science Education Through Immersive Experiences: Delivering on a Long Held Promise. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7), 1745–1771. https://journals-sagepub-com.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/doi/full/10.1177/0735633119854025

Alhalabi, W. S. (2016). Virtual reality systems enhance students’ achievements in engineering education. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(11), 919–925. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1212931

An, S., Kim, Y., Jung, G., Jang, H., Song, C., & Ma, B. (2019). Development of Chemical Incident Response Training Program by Applying Virtual Reality Technology. In Proceedings of the 2019 3rd International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality Simulations (ICVARS '19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 6–10. doi:https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1145/3332305.3332308

Anjos, F. E. V., Rocha, L. A. O., Silva, D. O., & Pacheco, R. (2020). Virtual and augmented reality application in production engineering teaching-learning processes. Production, 30, 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6513.20190088

Balzerkiewitz, H., & Stechert, C. (2020). Use of Virtual Reality in Product Development by Distributed Teams. Procedia CIRP, 91, 577-582. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2020.02.216

Berni, A., & Borgianni, Y. (2020). Applications of Virtual Reality in Engineering and Product Design: Why, What, How, When and Where. Electronics (Basel)9(7), 1064. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071064

Cao, S., Nandakumar, K., Babu, R., & Thompson, B. (2020). Game play in virtual reality driving simulation involving head-mounted display and comparison to desktop display. Virtual Reality24(3), 503-513.

Halabi, O. (2019). Immersive virtual reality to enforce teaching in engineering education. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79(3–4), 2987–3004. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-019-08214-8

Liagkou, V., Salmas, D., & Stylios, C. (2019). Realizing Virtual Reality Learning Environment for Industry 4.0. Procedia CIRP, 79, 712-717. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2019.02.025

Matsas, E., Vosniakos, G., & Batras, D. (2018). Prototyping proactive and adaptive techniques for human-robot collaboration in manufacturing using virtual reality. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing50, 168–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2017.09.005

Narasimha, S., Dixon, E., Bertrand, J. W., & Chalil Madathil, K. (2019). An empirical study to investigate the efficacy of collaborative immersive virtual reality systems for designing information architecture of software systems. Applied Ergonomics, 80, 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.05.009

Nguyen, H., Pontonnier, C., Hilt, S., Duval, T., & Dumont, G. (2017). VR-based operating modes and metaphors for collaborative ergonomic design of industrial workstations. Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces11(1), 97–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12193-016-0231-x

Rehman, U., & Cao, S. (2015, October). Augmented reality-based indoor navigation using google glass as a wearable head-mounted display. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (pp. 1452-1457). IEEE.

Rehman, U., & Cao, S. (2019). Comparative evaluation of augmented reality-based assistance for procedural tasks: a simulated control room study. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-21.

Sriadhi, S., Hamid, A., Sitompul, H., & Restu, R. (2022). Effectiveness of augmented reality-based learning media for engineering-physics teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.28613

Wolfartsberger, J. (2019). Analyzing the potential of Virtual Reality for engineering design review. Automation in Construction104, 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.03.018

Atwa, S. M. H., Ibrahim, M. G., Saleh, A. M., & Murata, R. (2019). Development of sustainable landscape design guidelines for a green business park using virtual reality. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101543

Detyna, M., & Kadiri, M. (2019). Virtual reality in the HE classroom: feasibility, and the potential to embed in the curriculum. Journal of Geography in Higher Education44(3), 474–485. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2019.1700486

Keenan,  C. P., Lincoln, C., Rogers, A., Gerson, V., Wingo, J., Vasquez-Kool, M., & Blanton, R.L. (2020). The Naturalist’s Workshop: Virtual Reality Interaction with a Natural Science Educational Collection. 2020 6th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN), San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, pp. 199-204, doi: 10.23919/iLRN47897.2020.9155162.

Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Oprean, D., Wallgrün, J. O., Stubbs, C., La Femina, P., & Jackson, K. L. (2019). The value of being there: toward a science of immersive virtual field trips. Virtual Reality, 24, 753-770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00418-5

Long, L., Dabrowski, G., &  Grant, A. (2019). Using 360 Virtual Reality to Make Experiential Learning Accessible to All. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/blogs/2020/4/using-360-virtual-reality-to-make-experiential-learning-accessible-to-all

Markowitz, D., Laha, R., Perone, B., Pea, R., & Bailenson, J. (2018). Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change. Frontiers in Psychology9, 2364. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02364

Martir, T. (2020, August). Performative-R: A New Way Of Storytelling. Presented at  SIGGRAPH ’20 Talks: Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. https://doi.org/10.1145/3388767.3407367 

Abdullah, J., Mohd-Isa, W. N., & Samsudin, M. A. (2019). Virtual reality to improve group work skill and self-directed learning in problem-based learning narratives. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 461–471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00381-1 

Scavarelli, A., Arya, A., & Teather, R. J. (2020b). Virtual reality and augmented reality in social learning spaces: a literature review. Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00444-8

Alfalah, S. F. M., Falah, J. F. M., Alfalah, T., Elfalah, M., Muhaidat, N., & Falah, O. (2018). A comparative study between a virtual reality heart anatomy system and traditional medical teaching modalities. Virtual Reality, 23(3), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0359-y

Baker, S., Waycott, J., Robertson, E., Carrasco, R., Neves, B. B., Hampson, R., & Vetere, F. (2020). Evaluating the use of interactive virtual reality technology with older adults living in residential aged care. Information Processing & Management, 57(3), 102105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2019.102105

Dreimane, S., & Daniela, L. (2020). Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Mobile Applications for Learning the Anatomy of the Human Body. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09461-7

Hilty, D. M., Randhawa, K., Maheu, M. M., McKean, A. J. S., Pantera, R., Mishkind, M. C., & Rizzo, A. (2020). A Review of Telepresence, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality Applied to Clinical Care. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 5(2), 178–205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41347-020-00126-x

Javaid, M., & Haleem, A. (2020). Virtual reality applications toward medical field. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health8(2), 600–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2019.12.010

Li, L., Yu, F., Shi, D., Shi, J., Tian, Z., Yang, J., Wang, X., & Jiang, Q. (2017). Application of virtual reality technology in clinical medicine. American Journal of Translational Research9(9), 3867–3880.

Nissler, C., Nowak, M., Connan, M., Büttner, S., Vogel, J., Kossyk, I., Márton, Z., & Castellini, C. (2019). VITA—an everyday virtual reality setup for prosthetics and upper-limb rehabilitation. Journal of Neural Engineering16(2). https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aaf35f

Roswell, R., Cogburn, C., Tocco, J., Martinez, J., Bangeranye, C., Bailenson, J., ... & Smith, L. (2020). Cultivating Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Advancing Conversations About Racism, Inequity, and Climate in Medicine. Academic Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003615

Tedman, R. (2017). Reality Vs Virtual Reality: Affective Domain Learning Outcomes In Medical Anatomy Teaching. EDULEARN17 Proceedings. doi:10.21125/edulearn.2017.0344

Bekele, M. K., Pierdicca, R., Frontoni, E., Malinverni, E. S., & Gain, J. (2018). A Survey of Augmented, Virtual, and Mixed Reality for Cultural Heritage. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 11(2), 1-36. doi:10.1145/3145534

Litvak, E., & Kuflik, T. (2020). Enhancing cultural heritage outdoor experience with augmented-reality smart glasses. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-020-01366-7

Ross, M., Wallis, K., (2020). Fourth VR: Indigenous virtual reality practice. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856520943083

Botella, C., Fernández-Álvarez, J., Guillén, V., García-Palacios, A., & Baños, R. (2017). Recent progress in virtual reality exposure therapy for phobias: a systematic review. Current Psychiatry Reports19(7), 42.

Cakir, R., & Korkmaz, O. (2018). The effectiveness of augmented reality environments on individuals with special education needs. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2), 1631–1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9848-6

Lindner, P., Miloff, A., Fagernäs, S., Andersen, J., Sigeman, M., Andersson, G., … Carlbring, P. (2019). Corrigendum to “Therapist-led and self-led one-session virtual reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety with consumer hardware and software: A randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 64, 90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.04.002

Maples-Keller, J., Bunnell, B., Kim, S., & Rothbaum, B. (2017). The Use of Virtual Reality Technology in the Treatment of Anxiety and Other Psychiatric Disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry25(3), 103–113. https://doi.org/10.1097/hrp.0000000000000138

Niforatos, E., Palma, A., Gluszny, R., Vourvopoulos, A., & Liarokapis, F. (2020). Would you do it?: Enacting Moral Dilemmas in Virtual Reality for Understanding Ethical Decision-Making. Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. doi:10.1145/3313831.3376788

Olson-Morrison, D. L. (2021). Virtual Reality in Social Work Education. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 232-256. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch011

Scavarelli, A., Arya, A., & Teather, R. J. (2020b). Virtual reality and augmented reality in social learning spaces: a literature review. Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00444-8

Sinha, N. (2021). Using Virtual Reality in College Student Mental Health Treatment. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 257-273. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch012

Yaremych, H. E., & Persky, S. (2019). Tracing physical behavior in virtual reality: A narrative review of applications to social psychology. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 85, 103845. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103845

Parmaxi, A. (2020). Virtual reality in language learning: a systematic review and implications for research and practice. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1765392

Abad-Segura, E., González-Zamar, M.-D., López-Meneses, E., & Vázquez-Cano, E. (2020). Financial Technology: Review of Trends, Approaches and Management. Mathematics8, 951.

Medina Herrera, L., Castro Pérez, J., & Juárez Ordóñez, S. (2019). Developing spatial mathematical skills through 3D tools: augmented reality, virtual environments and 3D printing. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing13(4), 1385–1399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12008-019-00595-2

Chien, Y.-C., Su, Y.-N., Wu, T.-T., & Huang, Y.-M. (2017). Enhancing students’ botanical learning by using augmented reality. Universal Access in the Information Society, 18(2), 231–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-017-0590-44 

Dunnagan, C. L., Dannenberg, D. A., Cuales, M. P., Earnest, A. D., Gurnsey, R. M., & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2019a). Production and Evaluation of a Realistic Immersive Virtual Reality Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experience: Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(1), 258–262. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00705

Goff, E. E., Mulvey, K. L., Irvin, M. J., & Hartstone-Rose, A. (2018). Applications of Augmented Reality in Informal Science Learning Sites: a Review. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 27(5), 433–447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9734-4

Parong, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Learning science in immersive virtual reality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(6), 785–797. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000241

Sriadhi, S., Hamid, A., Sitompul, H., & Restu, R. (2022). Effectiveness of augmented reality-based learning media for engineering-physics teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.28613

Tsichouridis C., Batsila M., Vavougios D., Ioannidis G. (2020) Virtual and Augmented Reality in Science Teaching and Learning. In Auer M., Hortsch H., Sethakul P. (Eds.) The Impact of the 4th Industrial Revolution on Engineering Education. ICL 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1134. Springer, Cham. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1007/978-3-030-40274-7_20 

Yoon, S., Anderson, E., Lin, J., & Elinich, K. (2017). How augmented reality enables conceptual understanding of challenging science content. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 156.

Zhou, X., Tang, L., Lin, D., & Han, W. (2020). Virtual & augmented reality for biological microscope in experiment education. Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware2(4), 316-329.

Colombo, S., & Golzio, L. (2016). The Plant Simulator as viable means to prevent and manage risk through competencies management: Experiment results. Safety Science84, 46–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.021

Makransky, G., Borre‐Gude, S., & Mayer, R. E. (2019). Motivational and cognitive benefits of training in immersive virtual reality based on multiple assessments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(6), 691–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12375

Pellas, N., Kazanidis, I., Konstantinou, N., & Georgiou, G. (2016). Exploring the educational potential of three-dimensional multi-user virtual worlds for STEM education: A mixed-method systematic literature review. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2235–2279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9537-2

Gibson, A., & O’Rawe, M. (2018). Virtual reality as a travel promotional tool: Insights from a consumer travel fair. In T. Jung & M, C. T. Dieck (Eds.) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality: Empowering Human, Place and Business (pp. 93-107). New York, NY: Springer.

Loureiro, S. M., Guerreiro, J., & Ali, F. (2020). 20 years of research on virtual reality and augmented reality in tourism context: A text-mining approach. Tourism Management, 77, 104028. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2019.104028

Blackwell, L., Ellison, N., Elliott-Deflo, N., & Schwartz, R. (2019). Harassment in Social Virtual Reality. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 3(CSCW), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1145/3359202


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