Extended Reality (XR)

Extended Reality (XR) is a simple term used to describe immersive, 3D, metaverse technologies like Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR). Explore this site to learn more.

Why is it Important to Explore XR? 

    • XR technology is a wave of technology that is predicted to be part of the next iteration of the internet and have great societal impact.
    • XR is a new frontier that is rapidly advancing, largely uninformed, and holds a lot of potential and opportunity.
    • More empirical results are needed to support its efficacy for teaching and learning. 

Despite twenty years of research, XR has only gained momentum within the past five years. Recent interest in XR is attributed to mass mobile technology production that advanced the component technology behind XR and reduced the cost of access to XR experiences (Bailenson, 2018). Although there are still barriers to broad use of XR technology, it is an important landscape for HE to explore. For example, consider what these technologies are to become in the next 5 years.

 

 

“Global Augmented Reality (AR) 
and Virtual Reality (VR) Market 
will grow by $ 125.19 billion
during 2020-2024”. 

Technavio (2020)

XR is emerging in healthcare, business and retail (the metaverse), manufacturing, engineering, arts and culture, and education. For example, research has found VR to be an effective tool in treatment for mental health conditions and physical/movement rehabilitation (Botella et al., 2017; Maples-Keller et al., 2017; Nissler et al., 2019). Likewise, XR is emerging as an effective tool for production engineering education (Anjos, 2020). Educational researchers see promise in XR for experiential learning. The shift to remote teaching, prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic, provides further reasons to explore XR. For example, Social VR (as described in Forbes) has the potential to help us feel more present together, even when remote. Consult Additional XR Reading by Topic Area to see how XR is being explored in your discipline.


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Background on XR 

Virtual Reality (VR) 

VR applications are designed to immerse a user in what feels like a ‘real’ world. In VR, the user can feel like they are present in a digitally created space, like the employee training in the Virtual Reality video above. The brain treats the VR experience as a real experience and the viewer feels physically present in the environment (Bailenson, 2018).

Experience is the number one affordance of VR technology. Researchers have also seen value in VR for increasing motivation, engagement, and enabling visual-spatial comprehension. Experiences that are dangerous, too costly, or not possible in real life can also be created for VR applications. Imagine being able to interact with 3 dimensional, life-size chemical structures, like in the Nanome video below. Interacting with life-size molecules isn’t possible in real life but can be possible with VR.

Watch: Nanome, VR Tools for Drug Discovery (02:24) © Nanome

VR applications range from being non-immersive (viewed with a computer or mobile device) to fully immersive (viewed with a Head-Mounted Display, or HMD). 

Augmented Reality (AR) 

Likewise, AR can increase motivation and engagement through practical application of theory. In contrast to VR applications (that close the user off from their physical world), AR applications ‘add-on’ to a user’s physical world to enhance it digitally. In a teaching and learning context, imagine engineering students using their mobile device to display text and visual overlays while performing electrical procedure training in the lab. An AR activity like this was explored as a solution to alleviate over-populated labs while helping students master specific competencies and proficiency (Martín-Gutiérrez et al., 2015).   

Mixed Reality (MR) 

MR is a mixture of VR and AR accessed using glasses or head mounted displays (HMDs) that enable a viewer to see their own physical world while also interacting with the digital world. MR is most associated with workplace uses of XR.


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Emergence of XR in the Workplace

Applications of VR are emerging in healthcare, business and retail, manufacturing, and engineering. The examples below show the spectrum of XR explorations in the workplace. 

uWaterloo Library Login may be required to access articles below.

Industry

Healthcare

Communication, Business, Arts, and Research  


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Teaching and Learning Examples


“XR is an effective technology for active and experiential learning, enabling users to gain concrete experience that might not otherwise be available. By providing “hands on” experience, XR helps promote student engagement with learning materials and deepens student interaction with complex problems.”

Pomerantz & Rode (2020)

The value of XR as a learning tool is gaining interest from researchers across the disciplines. Learning Outcomes measurement and exploration of XR are more prevalent in areas like engineering, computer science, and astronomy (Hamilton, Mckechnie, Edgerton, & Wilson, 2020). Healthcare is testing the potential of XR in medical education to improve understanding of anatomy and complex interrelations (Alfalah et al., 2018).

More solid evidence is needed on the effectiveness of VR for teaching and learning and how to design applications effectively for learning (Parong & Mayer, 2018). Mixed results of previous learning outcome measures of VR could be because of the design of the program itself and not necessarily the medium (Parong & Mayer, 2018). Better guidance on best practices in VR design are needed to ensure positive learning effects (Jensen & Konradsen, 2018).

The examples below show the spectrum of XR explorations in teaching and learning. 

 

Examples

uWaterloo Library Login may be required to access articles below.

See XR Additional Reading by Topic Area for more.


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Challenges 

XR is often refered to as part of the next computing platform (spatial computing) but there are barriers to mainstream XR use.

    • Cybersickness
    • Lack of existing quality content
    • Lack of empirical studies on learning outcomes
    • High cost
    • Skills required for content creation of 3D fully immersive technologies
    • Scalability and sustainability
    • Usability

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Activities at uWaterloo

 The cross-disciplinary list below shows where XR research and exploration is happening at uWaterloo.


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Where to Start: XR for Teaching and Learning

360 VR, Social VR, XR Content, and Simulations/Games are part of the ecosystem of emerging immersive experiences for Teaching and Learning.

The XR Collaboration (XRC) Resource Guide is a good resource to all things XR.

 

1. Work-Integrated Learning Opportunities for Students 

Wavemakers Wavemakers is supported by the Government of Canada through the Innovative Work-Integrated Learning Program that offers a virtual reality campus where students will meet and interact with other students, and mentors, participate in expert sessions and even attend a virtual career fair with 40+ employers. The program is part-time and free. A headset is not required.

2. 360VR

360VR provides learning opportunities through access to photos, virtual tours, and videos in 3 dimension. 360VR is a good starting point for XR exploration since there are easy to use creation tools, available content sources, and a desktop or mobile phone can be used to access the experiences.

3. Social VR Applications (synchronous, immersive classrooms, enterprise systems, metaverse technology)

Social VR enables students to collaborate in 3D via desktop or with HMDs in real-time. Social VR has the potential to break down physcial distance. Users can feel like they are physically present with eachother in a digital space.

4. Find Existing Content to Bring into a Course

5. Autonomous Creation Tools 

XR creation tools enable instructors and students to create immersive experiences. 

Create VR experiences that work on the web.

Powerful development platforms that enable you to create 3D, 2D VR, and AR applications.

6. Custom Creation

Simulations  

    • Games Institute (G.I.) is a uWaterloo research centre that creates custom XR simulations.

360 Virtual Tours

7. Courses and Guides

8. Books  

9. Podcasts 

10. Broad Recommendations for Advancing XR Capability in Higher Education

 


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XR Accessibility, Design, and Evaluation Resources

Existing user-centred design guidelines, XR case studies, and industry knowledge bases are good starting points for designing your specific experience. Guidance provided by aforementioned sources can be adjusted for the new abilities and requirements of the XR experience you are creating.

As with 2D experiences, best practice for 3D XR experiences is to proactively design with accessibility in mind. Accessibility challenges exist in 3D spaces.  

Accessibility Resources

Existing Design Guidelines

XR Design Guidelines

UX Guidelines for Extended Reality Applications on HMD

      1. Organize the Spatial Environment to Maximize Efficiency
      2. Create Flexible Interactions and Environments
      3. Prioritize User’s Comfort
      4. Keep It Simple: Do Not Overwhelm the User
      5. Design Around Hardware Capabilities and Limitations
      6. Use Cues to Help Users Throughout Their Experience
      7. Create a Compelling XR Experience
      8. Build upon Real World Knowledge
      9. Provide Feedback and Consistency
      10. Allow Users to Feel in Control of the Experience
      11. Allow for Trial and Error  

Vi, S., Silva, T. S. D., & Maurer, F. (2019, September). User experience guidelines for designing HMD extended reality applications. In IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 319-341). Springer, Cham.

Industry Design Guidelines


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University of Waterloo Extended Reality XR AR/VR Community of Practice

The uWaterloo Extended Reality AR/VR Community of Practice  explores XR topics through termly events and a Teams channel. Learn about previous topics, suggest future topics, or request to join the UW AR/VR group by contacting Gillian Dabrowski (CEL) or Mark Morton (CTE), co-facilitators of the group.  

Previous University of Waterloo XR AR/VR Community of Practice Events

Dr. Stéphane Bouchard
Session Description: Using virtual reality in psychotherapy: Where are we and what’s next?

Rob Theriault
Session Description Waterloo Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality (VR/AR) Community of Practice: An overview of XR initiatives at Georgian College (CTE 7511)

Lynn Long
Session Description The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on XR as a Learning Technology (CTE 7511)

Mark Morton
Session Description Using XR for Empathy Training (CTE7511)

    • June 25, 2021

Gillian Dabrowski
Session Description An Introduction to Extended Reality: What It is and How It Can Help Your Students Learn (CTE7541)


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Funding Opportunities for XR Exploration


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 AR/VR News and Organizations


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Additional Reading by Topic Area 

 

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Ashtari, N., Bunt, A., Mcgrenere, J., Nebeling, M., & Chilana, P. K. (2020). Creating Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications: Current Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities. Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376722

Gaspar, H., Morgado, L., Mamede, H., Oliveira, T., Manjón, B., & Gütl, C. (2019). Research priorities in immersive learning technology: the perspectives of the iLRN community. Virtual Reality, 24(2), 319–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00393-x

Garzón, J., Pavón, J., & Baldiris, S. (2019). Systematic review and meta-analysis of augmented reality in educational settings. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 447–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00379-9 

González-Zamar, M.-D., & Abad-Segura, E. (2020). Implications of Virtual Reality in Arts Education: Research Analysis in the Context of Higher Education. Education Sciences, 10(9), 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090225

Hamilton, D., McKechnie, J., Edgerton, E., & Wilson, C. (2020). Immersive virtual reality as a pedagogical tool in education: a systematic literature review of quantitative learning outcomes and experimental design. Journal of Computers in Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-020-00169-2

Jensen, L., & Konradsen, F. (2018). A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies23(4), 1515–1529. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1007/s10639-017-9676-0

Martín‐Gutiérrez, J., Mora, C. E., Añorbe‐Díaz, B., & González‐Marrero, A. (2017). Virtual technologies trends in education. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(2), 469–486.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney‐Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. (2014). Effectiveness of virtual reality‐based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K‐12 and higher education: A meta‐ analysis. Computers & Education, 70, 29–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.compedu.2013.07.033

Pigatt, Y., & Braman, J. (2021). Engaging Students in a Computer Diversity Course Through Virtual Worlds. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 170-193. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch008

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda. Computers & Education, 147, 103778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103778

Sala, N. (2021). Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality in Education. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 48-73. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch003

Sun, R., Wu, Y. J., & Cai, Q. (2018). The effect of a virtual reality learning environment on learners’ spatial ability. Virtual Reality23(4), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0355-2

Wang, Y. (2021). Technical Details and Educational Applications for Virtual Reality Technologies. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 74-95. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch004

Wu, B., Yu, X., & Gu, X. (2020). Effectiveness of immersive virtual reality using head‐mounted displays on learning performance: A meta‐analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13023

Xin, Y. (2022). Influence of learning engagement on learning effect under a virtual reality (VR) environment. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 226–237. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.29451

Akcayir, M., & Akcayir, G. (2017). Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature. Educational Research Review, 20, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.edurev.2016.11.002

Pellas, N., Fotaris, P., Kazanidis, I., & Wells, D. (2018). Augmenting the learning experience in primary and secondary school education: a systematic review of recent trends in augmented reality game-based learning. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 329–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0347-2

Spitzer, M., Gsellmann, I., Hebenstreit, M., Damalas, S. & Ebner, M., (2019). A Research Agenda to Deploy Technology Enhanced Learning with Augmented Reality in Industry. Mensch und Computer 2019 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. doi: 10.18420/muc2019-ws-300-05

Sriadhi, S., Hamid, A., Sitompul, H., & Restu, R. (2022). Effectiveness of augmented reality-based learning media for engineering-physics teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.28613

Videnovik, M., Trajkovik, V., Kiønig, L. V., & Vold, T. (2020). Increasing quality of learning experience using augmented reality educational games. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79(33–34), 23861–23885. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-020-09046-7

Wang, M., Callaghan, V., Bernhardt, J., White, K., & Peña-Rios, A. (2017). Augmented reality in education and training: pedagogical approaches and illustrative case studies. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 9(5), 1391–1402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-017-0547-8

Maresky, H., Oikonomou, A., Ali, I., Ditkofsky, N., Pakkal, M., & Ballyk, B. (2018). Virtual reality and cardiac anatomy: Exploring immersive three‐dimensional cardiac imaging, a pilot study in undergraduate medical anatomy education. Clinical Anatomy32(2), 238–243. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23292
Zhang, Y., Liu, H., Kang, S., & Al-Hussein, M. (2020). Virtual reality applications for the built environment: Research trends and opportunities. Automation in Construction, 118, 103311. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103311

De Gauquier, L., Brengman, M., Willems, K., & Kerrebroeck, H. (2019). Leveraging advertising to a higher dimension: experimental research on the impact of virtual reality on brand personality impressions. Virtual Reality23(3), 235–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0344-5 

Gironacci, I. M. (2021). State of the Art of Extended Reality Tools and Applications in Business. Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Risk Management and Cyber Intelligence Advances in Information Security, Privacy, and Ethics, 105-118. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4339-9.ch008

Xu, C., Demir-Kaymaz, Y., Hartmann, C., Menozzi, M., & Siegrist, M. (2021). The comparability of consumers’ behavior in virtual reality and real life: A validation study of virtual reality based on a ranking task. Food Quality and Preference, 87, 104071. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104071

Dunnagan, C. L., Dannenberg, D. A., Cuales, M. P., Earnest, A. D., Gurnsey, R. M., & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2019b). Production and Evaluation of a Realistic Immersive Virtual Reality Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experience: Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(1), 258–262. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00705

Chang, Y., Chou, C., Chuang, M., Li, W., & Tsai, I. (2020) Effects of virtual reality on creative design performance and creative experiential learning, Interactive Learning Environments. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2020.1821717 

Kukkakorpi, M., & Pantti, M. (2020) A Sense of Place: VR Journalism and Emotional Engagement. Journalism Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1799237

Lytridis, C., & Tsinakos, A. (2018) Evaluation of the ARTutor augmented reality educational platform in tertiary education. Smart Learning Environments, 5. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1186/s40561-018-0058-x  

Martir, T. (2020, August). Performative-R: A New Way Of Storytelling. Presented at  SIGGRAPH ’20 Talks: Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. https://doi.org/10.1145/3388767.3407367 

Uskali, T., Gynnild, A., Jones, S., & Sirkkunen, E. (Eds.). (2021). Immersive Journalism as Storytelling (1st ed.). Routledge. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://openresearchlibrary.org

Mayne, R., & Green, H. (2020). Virtual reality for teaching and learning in crime scene investigation. Science & Justice, 60(5), 466–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2020.07.006

Rosales, E., Rodriguez, J., & Sheffer, A. (2019). SurfaceBrush: from virtual reality drawings to manifold surfaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 38(4), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1145/3306346.3322970

Soylucicek, S. (2019). Looking through the Sphere; Illustration in virtual reality. Global Journal of Arts Education, 9(1), 22-28. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjae.v9i2.3953  

Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Jackson, K. L., La Femina, P., Stubbs, C., Wetzel, R., Blair, J., ... & Oprean, D. (2019). Transforming Earth Science Education Through Immersive Experiences: Delivering on a Long Held Promise. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7), 1745–1771. https://journals-sagepub-com.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/doi/full/10.1177/0735633119854025

Alhalabi, W. S. (2016). Virtual reality systems enhance students’ achievements in engineering education. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(11), 919–925. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1212931

An, S., Kim, Y., Jung, G., Jang, H., Song, C., & Ma, B. (2019). Development of Chemical Incident Response Training Program by Applying Virtual Reality Technology. In Proceedings of the 2019 3rd International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality Simulations (ICVARS '19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 6–10. doi:https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1145/3332305.3332308

Anjos, F. E. V., Rocha, L. A. O., Silva, D. O., & Pacheco, R. (2020). Virtual and augmented reality application in production engineering teaching-learning processes. Production, 30, 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6513.20190088

Balzerkiewitz, H., & Stechert, C. (2020). Use of Virtual Reality in Product Development by Distributed Teams. Procedia CIRP, 91, 577-582. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2020.02.216

Berni, A., & Borgianni, Y. (2020). Applications of Virtual Reality in Engineering and Product Design: Why, What, How, When and Where. Electronics (Basel)9(7), 1064. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071064

Cao, S., Nandakumar, K., Babu, R., & Thompson, B. (2020). Game play in virtual reality driving simulation involving head-mounted display and comparison to desktop display. Virtual Reality24(3), 503-513.

Halabi, O. (2019). Immersive virtual reality to enforce teaching in engineering education. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79(3–4), 2987–3004. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-019-08214-8

Liagkou, V., Salmas, D., & Stylios, C. (2019). Realizing Virtual Reality Learning Environment for Industry 4.0. Procedia CIRP, 79, 712-717. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2019.02.025

Matsas, E., Vosniakos, G., & Batras, D. (2018). Prototyping proactive and adaptive techniques for human-robot collaboration in manufacturing using virtual reality. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing50, 168–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2017.09.005

Narasimha, S., Dixon, E., Bertrand, J. W., & Chalil Madathil, K. (2019). An empirical study to investigate the efficacy of collaborative immersive virtual reality systems for designing information architecture of software systems. Applied Ergonomics, 80, 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.05.009

Nguyen, H., Pontonnier, C., Hilt, S., Duval, T., & Dumont, G. (2017). VR-based operating modes and metaphors for collaborative ergonomic design of industrial workstations. Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces11(1), 97–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12193-016-0231-x

Rehman, U., & Cao, S. (2015, October). Augmented reality-based indoor navigation using google glass as a wearable head-mounted display. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (pp. 1452-1457). IEEE.

Rehman, U., & Cao, S. (2019). Comparative evaluation of augmented reality-based assistance for procedural tasks: a simulated control room study. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-21.

Sriadhi, S., Hamid, A., Sitompul, H., & Restu, R. (2022). Effectiveness of augmented reality-based learning media for engineering-physics teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.28613

Wolfartsberger, J. (2019). Analyzing the potential of Virtual Reality for engineering design review. Automation in Construction104, 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.03.018

Atwa, S. M. H., Ibrahim, M. G., Saleh, A. M., & Murata, R. (2019). Development of sustainable landscape design guidelines for a green business park using virtual reality. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101543

Detyna, M., & Kadiri, M. (2019). Virtual reality in the HE classroom: feasibility, and the potential to embed in the curriculum. Journal of Geography in Higher Education44(3), 474–485. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2019.1700486

Keenan,  C. P., Lincoln, C., Rogers, A., Gerson, V., Wingo, J., Vasquez-Kool, M., & Blanton, R.L. (2020). The Naturalist’s Workshop: Virtual Reality Interaction with a Natural Science Educational Collection. 2020 6th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN), San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, pp. 199-204, doi: 10.23919/iLRN47897.2020.9155162.

Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Oprean, D., Wallgrün, J. O., Stubbs, C., La Femina, P., & Jackson, K. L. (2019). The value of being there: toward a science of immersive virtual field trips. Virtual Reality, 24, 753-770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00418-5

Long, L., Dabrowski, G., &  Grant, A. (2019). Using 360 Virtual Reality to Make Experiential Learning Accessible to All. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/blogs/2020/4/using-360-virtual-reality-to-make-experiential-learning-accessible-to-all

Markowitz, D., Laha, R., Perone, B., Pea, R., & Bailenson, J. (2018). Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change. Frontiers in Psychology9, 2364. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02364

Martir, T. (2020, August). Performative-R: A New Way Of Storytelling. Presented at  SIGGRAPH ’20 Talks: Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. https://doi.org/10.1145/3388767.3407367 

Abdullah, J., Mohd-Isa, W. N., & Samsudin, M. A. (2019). Virtual reality to improve group work skill and self-directed learning in problem-based learning narratives. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 461–471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00381-1 

Scavarelli, A., Arya, A., & Teather, R. J. (2020b). Virtual reality and augmented reality in social learning spaces: a literature review. Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00444-8

Alfalah, S. F. M., Falah, J. F. M., Alfalah, T., Elfalah, M., Muhaidat, N., & Falah, O. (2018). A comparative study between a virtual reality heart anatomy system and traditional medical teaching modalities. Virtual Reality, 23(3), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0359-y

Baker, S., Waycott, J., Robertson, E., Carrasco, R., Neves, B. B., Hampson, R., & Vetere, F. (2020). Evaluating the use of interactive virtual reality technology with older adults living in residential aged care. Information Processing & Management, 57(3), 102105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2019.102105

Dreimane, S., & Daniela, L. (2020). Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Mobile Applications for Learning the Anatomy of the Human Body. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09461-7

Hilty, D. M., Randhawa, K., Maheu, M. M., McKean, A. J. S., Pantera, R., Mishkind, M. C., & Rizzo, A. (2020). A Review of Telepresence, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality Applied to Clinical Care. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 5(2), 178–205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41347-020-00126-x

Javaid, M., & Haleem, A. (2020). Virtual reality applications toward medical field. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health8(2), 600–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2019.12.010

Li, L., Yu, F., Shi, D., Shi, J., Tian, Z., Yang, J., Wang, X., & Jiang, Q. (2017). Application of virtual reality technology in clinical medicine. American Journal of Translational Research9(9), 3867–3880.

Nissler, C., Nowak, M., Connan, M., Büttner, S., Vogel, J., Kossyk, I., Márton, Z., & Castellini, C. (2019). VITA—an everyday virtual reality setup for prosthetics and upper-limb rehabilitation. Journal of Neural Engineering16(2). https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aaf35f

Roswell, R., Cogburn, C., Tocco, J., Martinez, J., Bangeranye, C., Bailenson, J., ... & Smith, L. (2020). Cultivating Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Advancing Conversations About Racism, Inequity, and Climate in Medicine. Academic Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003615

Tedman, R. (2017). Reality Vs Virtual Reality: Affective Domain Learning Outcomes In Medical Anatomy Teaching. EDULEARN17 Proceedings. doi:10.21125/edulearn.2017.0344

Bekele, M. K., Pierdicca, R., Frontoni, E., Malinverni, E. S., & Gain, J. (2018). A Survey of Augmented, Virtual, and Mixed Reality for Cultural Heritage. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 11(2), 1-36. doi:10.1145/3145534

Litvak, E., & Kuflik, T. (2020). Enhancing cultural heritage outdoor experience with augmented-reality smart glasses. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-020-01366-7

Ross, M., Wallis, K., (2020). Fourth VR: Indigenous virtual reality practice. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856520943083

Botella, C., Fernández-Álvarez, J., Guillén, V., García-Palacios, A., & Baños, R. (2017). Recent progress in virtual reality exposure therapy for phobias: a systematic review. Current Psychiatry Reports19(7), 42.

Cakir, R., & Korkmaz, O. (2018). The effectiveness of augmented reality environments on individuals with special education needs. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2), 1631–1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9848-6

Lindner, P., Miloff, A., Fagernäs, S., Andersen, J., Sigeman, M., Andersson, G., … Carlbring, P. (2019). Corrigendum to “Therapist-led and self-led one-session virtual reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety with consumer hardware and software: A randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 64, 90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.04.002

Maples-Keller, J., Bunnell, B., Kim, S., & Rothbaum, B. (2017). The Use of Virtual Reality Technology in the Treatment of Anxiety and Other Psychiatric Disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry25(3), 103–113. https://doi.org/10.1097/hrp.0000000000000138

Niforatos, E., Palma, A., Gluszny, R., Vourvopoulos, A., & Liarokapis, F. (2020). Would you do it?: Enacting Moral Dilemmas in Virtual Reality for Understanding Ethical Decision-Making. Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. doi:10.1145/3313831.3376788

Olson-Morrison, D. L. (2021). Virtual Reality in Social Work Education. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 232-256. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch011

Scavarelli, A., Arya, A., & Teather, R. J. (2020b). Virtual reality and augmented reality in social learning spaces: a literature review. Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00444-8

Sinha, N. (2021). Using Virtual Reality in College Student Mental Health Treatment. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 257-273. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch012

Yaremych, H. E., & Persky, S. (2019). Tracing physical behavior in virtual reality: A narrative review of applications to social psychology. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 85, 103845. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103845

Parmaxi, A. (2020). Virtual reality in language learning: a systematic review and implications for research and practice. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1765392

Abad-Segura, E., González-Zamar, M.-D., López-Meneses, E., & Vázquez-Cano, E. (2020). Financial Technology: Review of Trends, Approaches and Management. Mathematics8, 951.

Medina Herrera, L., Castro Pérez, J., & Juárez Ordóñez, S. (2019). Developing spatial mathematical skills through 3D tools: augmented reality, virtual environments and 3D printing. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing13(4), 1385–1399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12008-019-00595-2

Chien, Y.-C., Su, Y.-N., Wu, T.-T., & Huang, Y.-M. (2017). Enhancing students’ botanical learning by using augmented reality. Universal Access in the Information Society, 18(2), 231–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-017-0590-44 

Dunnagan, C. L., Dannenberg, D. A., Cuales, M. P., Earnest, A. D., Gurnsey, R. M., & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2019a). Production and Evaluation of a Realistic Immersive Virtual Reality Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experience: Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(1), 258–262. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00705

Goff, E. E., Mulvey, K. L., Irvin, M. J., & Hartstone-Rose, A. (2018). Applications of Augmented Reality in Informal Science Learning Sites: a Review. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 27(5), 433–447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9734-4

Parong, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Learning science in immersive virtual reality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(6), 785–797. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000241

Sriadhi, S., Hamid, A., Sitompul, H., & Restu, R. (2022). Effectiveness of augmented reality-based learning media for engineering-physics teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 17(05), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i05.28613

Tsichouridis C., Batsila M., Vavougios D., Ioannidis G. (2020) Virtual and Augmented Reality in Science Teaching and Learning. In Auer M., Hortsch H., Sethakul P. (Eds.) The Impact of the 4th Industrial Revolution on Engineering Education. ICL 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1134. Springer, Cham. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1007/978-3-030-40274-7_20 

Yoon, S., Anderson, E., Lin, J., & Elinich, K. (2017). How augmented reality enables conceptual understanding of challenging science content. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 156.

Zhou, X., Tang, L., Lin, D., & Han, W. (2020). Virtual & augmented reality for biological microscope in experiment education. Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware2(4), 316-329.

Colombo, S., & Golzio, L. (2016). The Plant Simulator as viable means to prevent and manage risk through competencies management: Experiment results. Safety Science84, 46–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.021

Makransky, G., Borre‐Gude, S., & Mayer, R. E. (2019). Motivational and cognitive benefits of training in immersive virtual reality based on multiple assessments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(6), 691–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12375

Pellas, N., Kazanidis, I., Konstantinou, N., & Georgiou, G. (2016). Exploring the educational potential of three-dimensional multi-user virtual worlds for STEM education: A mixed-method systematic literature review. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2235–2279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9537-2

Gibson, A., & O’Rawe, M. (2018). Virtual reality as a travel promotional tool: Insights from a consumer travel fair. In T. Jung & M, C. T. Dieck (Eds.) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality: Empowering Human, Place and Business (pp. 93-107). New York, NY: Springer.

Loureiro, S. M., Guerreiro, J., & Ali, F. (2020). 20 years of research on virtual reality and augmented reality in tourism context: A text-mining approach. Tourism Management, 77, 104028. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2019.104028

Blackwell, L., Ellison, N., Elliott-Deflo, N., & Schwartz, R. (2019). Harassment in Social Virtual Reality. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 3(CSCW), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1145/3359202


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