Extended Reality (XR)

This site is a collection of XR examples emerging in the Workplace and Higher Education (HE).   

 

On this page: 

Why is it Important to Explore XR? 

    • XR technology is advancing rapidly.
    • XR use-cases are emerging in the Workplace and Higher Education (HE).
    • Students who are familiar and experienced with XR will have a competitive advantage in the future workforce.
    • To be successful over less costly mediums, more empirical results are needed to support its efficacy. 

 

Extended Reality (XR) is a simple term used to describe immersive technologies like Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). Despite twenty years of research, XR has only gained momentum within the past five years. Recent interest in XR is attributed to mass mobile technology production that advanced the component technology behind XR and reduced the cost of access to XR experiences (Bailenson, 2018). Although there are still barriers to broad use of XR technology, it is an important innovation area for HE to explore.

 

 

“Global Augmented Reality (AR) 
and Virtual Reality (VR) Market 
will grow by $ 125.19 billion
during 2020-2024”. 

Technavio (2020)

Students who are familiar and experienced with XR will have a competitive advantage in the future workforce. If you follow the XR industry, you’ll have noticed investments in R&D and acquisitions of XR start-ups by tech giants like Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, HP, Sony, and Samsung. XR is emerging in areas like healthcare, business and retail, manufacturing, engineering, and education. For example, research has found VR to be an effective tool in treatment for mental health conditions and physical/movement rehabilitation (Botella et al., 2017; Maples-Keller et al., 2017; Nissler et al., 2019). Likewise, XR is emerging as an effective tool for production engineering education (Anjos, 2020). Educational researchers see promise in XR for experiential learning. The shift to remote teaching, prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic, provides further reasons to explore XR. For example, Social VR (as described in Forbes) has the potential to help us feel more present together, even when remote. Consult Additional XR Reading by Topic Area to see how XR is being explored in your discipline.

Technology hype and market growth predictions aside, XR has not yet lived up to expectations of it becoming a mainstream tool. Challenges have limited broad adoption of XR. To become a relevant industry and HE tool, XR needs stronger evidence to support its value over traditional methods.There are basic ways instructors can Start to Explore XR for Teaching and Learning.  See how XR is emerging in teaching and learning at uWaterloo by visiting XR Activities at uWaterloo.

 

Backgrounders on XR 

XR terminology and the different types of VR and AR experiences can be confusing. The articles below provide backgrounders on XR.

 

Virtual Reality (VR) Explained

Watch: Workplace Training Session (02:16)

 

VR applications are designed to immerse a user in what feels like a ‘real’ world. In VR, the user can feel like they are present in a digitally created space, like the employee training in the Virtual Reality video above. The brain treats the VR experience as a real experience and the viewer feels physically present in the environment (Bailenson, 2018).

Experience is the number one affordance of VR technology and it is what makes the technology so interesting. Researchers have also seen value in VR for increasing motivation, engagement, and enabling visual-spatial comprehension. Experiences that are dangerous, too costly, or not possible in real life can also be created for VR applications. Imagine being able to interact with 3 dimensional, life-size chemical structures, like in the Nanome video below. Interacting with life-size molecules isn’t possible in real life but can be possible with VR.

Watch: Nanome, VR Tools for Drug Discovery (02:24) © Nanome

VR applications range from being non-immersive (viewed with a computer or mobile device) to fully immersive (viewed with a Head-Mounted Display, or HMD). We won’t get into the various types of VR devices here. 

Augmented Reality (AR) Explained

Watch: Augmented Reality: Four Use Cases for Industry (02:29)

 

Likewise, AR can increase motivation and engagement through practical application of theory. In contrast to VR applications (that close the user off from their physical world), AR applications ‘add-on’ to a user’s physical world to enhance it digitally. In a teaching and learning context, imagine engineering students using their mobile device to display text and visual overlays while performing electrical procedure training in the lab. An AR activity like this was explored as a solution to alleviate over-populated labs while helping students master specific competencies and proficiency (Martín-Gutiérrez et al., 2015).   

Mixed Reality (MR) Explained

Watch: MIT Mathland (01:19) 
© MIT MediaLab

MR is a mixture of VR and AR accessed using glasses or head mounted displays (HMDs) that enable a viewer to see their own physical world while also interacting with the digital world. MR is most associated with workplace uses of XR.

Workplace XR

Applications of VR are emerging in healthcare, business and retail, manufacturing, and engineering. Below are examples of XR applications you may be interested in learning more about. Having an awareness of how XR is being applied in industry will help prepare students to navigate the future workplace.

uWaterloo Library Login may be required to access articles below.

Industry

Healthcare

Communication, Business, Arts, and Research  

Teaching and Learning Examples


“XR is an effective technology for active and experiential learning, enabling users to gain concrete experience that might not otherwise be available. By providing “hands on” experience, XR helps promote student engagement with learning materials and deepens student interaction with complex problems.”

Pomerantz & Rode (2020)

The value of XR as a learning tool is gaining interest from researchers across the disciplines. Learning Outcomes measurement and exploration of XR are more prevalent in areas like engineering, computer science, and astronomy (Hamilton, Mckechnie, Edgerton, & Wilson, 2020). Healthcare is testing the potential of XR in medical education to improve understanding of anatomy and complex interrelations (Alfalah et al., 2018).

More solid evidence is needed on the effectiveness of VR for teaching and learning and how to design applications effectively for learning (Parong & Mayer, 2018). Mixed results of previous learning outcome measures of VR could be because of the design of the program itself and not necessarily the medium (Parong & Mayer, 2018). Better guidance on best practices in VR design are needed to ensure positive learning effects (Jensen & Konradsen, 2018).

The examples below show the spectrum of XR explorations in teaching and learning. 

 

Examples

uWaterloo Library Login may be required to access articles below.

See XR Additional Reading by Topic Area for more.

Challenges 

XR is often refered to as part of the next computing platform (spatial computing) but there are barriers to mainstream XR use.

    • Design Best Practices (resources coming soon).
    • Cybersickness (VR).
    • Lack of existing quality content. 
    • Lack of empirical studies on learning outcomes.
    • High cost. 
    • Skills required for content creation of 3D fully immersive technologies. 
    • Scalability and sustainability.
    • Usability.

XR Activities at uWaterloo

 The cross-disciplinary list below shows where XR research and exploration is happening at uWaterloo.

Where to Start: XR for Teaching and Learning

360 VR, Social VR, XR Content, and Simulations/Games are areas of emerging experiences for Teaching and Learning. The XR Collaboration (XRC) Resource Guide is comprehensive guide to all things XR.

360VR

360VR provides learning opportunities through access to photos, virtual tours, and videos in 3 dimension. 360VR is a good starting point for XR exploration since there are easy to use creation tools and available content sources.

Social VR Applications (synchronous, immersive classrooms)

Social VR enables students to collaborate in 3D via desktop, low-cost viewers like Google Cardboard, or with HMDs.  Social VR has the potential to break down the isolation of physcial distance by digitally connecting people in a more natural way. Users can feel like they are physically present with eachother in a digital space.

Find XR Existing Content to Bring into Your Course

XR Autonomous Creation Tools 

XR creation tools enable instructors and students to create XR experiences.

XR Custom Creation

Simulations  

    • Games Institute (G.I.) is a uWaterloo research centre that creates custom XR simulations.

360 Virtual Tours

XR Comprehensive Courses and Guides

Books  

Podcasts 

uWaterloo XR Community of Practice

The uWaterloo VR/AR Community of Practice  explores XR topics. Learn about previous topics, suggest future topics, or request to join the UW AR/VR group by contacting Gillian Dabrowski (CEL) or Mark Morton (CTE), co-facilitators of the group.   


uWaterloo XR Student Groups 

UW VR is Canada's first University based Virtual Reality club. It is dedicated to promoting the different applications of VR, the development of VR content, and making it accessible to the general uWaterloo student body by holding various events and projects. 


Funding Opportunities for XR exploration in Teaching and Learning

(resources coming soon)

AR VR News and Organizations

Conclusion

  • XR shows promise in its potential uses in both industry and HE. 

  • XR technology and industry applications are advancing rapidly but are not yet ready for broad adoption.  

  • To be a successful tool over less costly instruction, more empirical results to support its efficacy and guidance on best practices are needed.  

  • XR applications are emerging in industry and education. Students who are familiar and experienced with XR will have a competitive advantage in the future workforce. XR digital fluency and digital literacy are important skills for navigating a complex future.

Examples of XR applications in industry and teaching and learning will be added to this site regularly. Please check back for additional information on designing and deploying XR across the discplines.

Please contact Gillian Dabrowski (CEL) or Mark Morton (CTE) to add XR examples from your discpline to this site.

Additional XR Reading by Topic Area 

 

Open all / Close all

Ashtari, N., Bunt, A., Mcgrenere, J., Nebeling, M., & Chilana, P. K. (2020). Creating Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications: Current Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities. Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376722

Gaspar, H., Morgado, L., Mamede, H., Oliveira, T., Manjón, B., & Gütl, C. (2019). Research priorities in immersive learning technology: the perspectives of the iLRN community. Virtual Reality, 24(2), 319–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00393-x

Garzón, J., Pavón, J., & Baldiris, S. (2019). Systematic review and meta-analysis of augmented reality in educational settings. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 447–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00379-9 

González-Zamar, M.-D., & Abad-Segura, E. (2020). Implications of Virtual Reality in Arts Education: Research Analysis in the Context of Higher Education. Education Sciences, 10(9), 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090225

Hamilton, D., McKechnie, J., Edgerton, E., & Wilson, C. (2020). Immersive virtual reality as a pedagogical tool in education: a systematic literature review of quantitative learning outcomes and experimental design. Journal of Computers in Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-020-00169-2

Jensen, L., & Konradsen, F. (2018). A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies23(4), 1515–1529. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1007/s10639-017-9676-0

Martín‐Gutiérrez, J., Mora, C. E., Añorbe‐Díaz, B., & González‐Marrero, A. (2017). Virtual technologies trends in education. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(2), 469–486.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney‐Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. (2014). Effectiveness of virtual reality‐based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K‐12 and higher education: A meta‐ analysis. Computers & Education, 70, 29–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.compedu.2013.07.033

Pigatt, Y., & Braman, J. (2021). Engaging Students in a Computer Diversity Course Through Virtual Worlds. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 170-193. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch008

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda. Computers & Education, 147, 103778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103778

Sala, N. (2021). Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality in Education. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 48-73. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch003

Sun, R., Wu, Y. J., & Cai, Q. (2018). The effect of a virtual reality learning environment on learners’ spatial ability. Virtual Reality23(4), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0355-2

Wang, Y. (2021). Technical Details and Educational Applications for Virtual Reality Technologies. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 74-95. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch004

Wu, B., Yu, X., & Gu, X. (2020). Effectiveness of immersive virtual reality using head‐mounted displays on learning performance: A meta‐analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13023

Akcayir, M., & Akcayir, G. (2017). Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature. Educational Research Review, 20, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.edurev.2016.11.002

Pellas, N., Fotaris, P., Kazanidis, I., & Wells, D. (2018). Augmenting the learning experience in primary and secondary school education: a systematic review of recent trends in augmented reality game-based learning. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 329–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0347-2

Spitzer, M., Gsellmann, I., Hebenstreit, M., Damalas, S. & Ebner, M., (2019). A Research Agenda to Deploy Technology Enhanced Learning with Augmented Reality in Industry. Mensch und Computer 2019 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. doi: 10.18420/muc2019-ws-300-05

Videnovik, M., Trajkovik, V., Kiønig, L. V., & Vold, T. (2020). Increasing quality of learning experience using augmented reality educational games. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79(33–34), 23861–23885. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-020-09046-7

Wang, M., Callaghan, V., Bernhardt, J., White, K., & Peña-Rios, A. (2017). Augmented reality in education and training: pedagogical approaches and illustrative case studies. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 9(5), 1391–1402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-017-0547-8

Maresky, H., Oikonomou, A., Ali, I., Ditkofsky, N., Pakkal, M., & Ballyk, B. (2018). Virtual reality and cardiac anatomy: Exploring immersive three‐dimensional cardiac imaging, a pilot study in undergraduate medical anatomy education. Clinical Anatomy32(2), 238–243. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23292
Zhang, Y., Liu, H., Kang, S., & Al-Hussein, M. (2020). Virtual reality applications for the built environment: Research trends and opportunities. Automation in Construction, 118, 103311. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103311

De Gauquier, L., Brengman, M., Willems, K., & Kerrebroeck, H. (2019). Leveraging advertising to a higher dimension: experimental research on the impact of virtual reality on brand personality impressions. Virtual Reality23(3), 235–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0344-5 

Gironacci, I. M. (2021). State of the Art of Extended Reality Tools and Applications in Business. Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Risk Management and Cyber Intelligence Advances in Information Security, Privacy, and Ethics, 105-118. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4339-9.ch008

Xu, C., Demir-Kaymaz, Y., Hartmann, C., Menozzi, M., & Siegrist, M. (2021). The comparability of consumers’ behavior in virtual reality and real life: A validation study of virtual reality based on a ranking task. Food Quality and Preference, 87, 104071. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104071

Dunnagan, C. L., Dannenberg, D. A., Cuales, M. P., Earnest, A. D., Gurnsey, R. M., & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2019b). Production and Evaluation of a Realistic Immersive Virtual Reality Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experience: Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(1), 258–262. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00705

Chang, Y., Chou, C., Chuang, M., Li, W., & Tsai, I. (2020) Effects of virtual reality on creative design performance and creative experiential learning, Interactive Learning Environments. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2020.1821717 

Kukkakorpi, M., & Pantti, M. (2020) A Sense of Place: VR Journalism and Emotional Engagement. Journalism Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1799237

Lytridis, C., & Tsinakos, A. (2018) Evaluation of the ARTutor augmented reality educational platform in tertiary education. Smart Learning Environments, 5. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1186/s40561-018-0058-x  

Martir, T. (2020, August). Performative-R: A New Way Of Storytelling. Presented at  SIGGRAPH ’20 Talks: Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. https://doi.org/10.1145/3388767.3407367 

Uskali, T., Gynnild, A., Jones, S., & Sirkkunen, E. (Eds.). (2021). Immersive Journalism as Storytelling (1st ed.). Routledge. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://openresearchlibrary.org

Mayne, R., & Green, H. (2020). Virtual reality for teaching and learning in crime scene investigation. Science & Justice, 60(5), 466–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2020.07.006

Rosales, E., Rodriguez, J., & Sheffer, A. (2019). SurfaceBrush: from virtual reality drawings to manifold surfaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 38(4), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1145/3306346.3322970

Soylucicek, S. (2019). Looking through the Sphere; Illustration in virtual reality. Global Journal of Arts Education, 9(1), 22-28. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjae.v9i2.3953  

Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Jackson, K. L., La Femina, P., Stubbs, C., Wetzel, R., Blair, J., ... & Oprean, D. (2019). Transforming Earth Science Education Through Immersive Experiences: Delivering on a Long Held Promise. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7), 1745–1771. https://journals-sagepub-com.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/doi/full/10.1177/0735633119854025

Alhalabi, W. S. (2016). Virtual reality systems enhance students’ achievements in engineering education. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(11), 919–925. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1212931

An, S., Kim, Y., Jung, G., Jang, H., Song, C., & Ma, B. (2019). Development of Chemical Incident Response Training Program by Applying Virtual Reality Technology. In Proceedings of the 2019 3rd International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality Simulations (ICVARS '19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 6–10. doi:https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1145/3332305.3332308

Anjos, F. E. V., Rocha, L. A. O., Silva, D. O., & Pacheco, R. (2020). Virtual and augmented reality application in production engineering teaching-learning processes. Production, 30, 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6513.20190088

Balzerkiewitz, H., & Stechert, C. (2020). Use of Virtual Reality in Product Development by Distributed Teams. Procedia CIRP, 91, 577-582. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2020.02.216

Berni, A., & Borgianni, Y. (2020). Applications of Virtual Reality in Engineering and Product Design: Why, What, How, When and Where. Electronics (Basel)9(7), 1064. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071064

Cao, S., Nandakumar, K., Babu, R., & Thompson, B. (2020). Game play in virtual reality driving simulation involving head-mounted display and comparison to desktop display. Virtual Reality24(3), 503-513.

Halabi, O. (2019). Immersive virtual reality to enforce teaching in engineering education. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79(3–4), 2987–3004. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-019-08214-8

Liagkou, V., Salmas, D., & Stylios, C. (2019). Realizing Virtual Reality Learning Environment for Industry 4.0. Procedia CIRP, 79, 712-717. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2019.02.025

Matsas, E., Vosniakos, G., & Batras, D. (2018). Prototyping proactive and adaptive techniques for human-robot collaboration in manufacturing using virtual reality. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing50, 168–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2017.09.005

Narasimha, S., Dixon, E., Bertrand, J. W., & Chalil Madathil, K. (2019). An empirical study to investigate the efficacy of collaborative immersive virtual reality systems for designing information architecture of software systems. Applied Ergonomics, 80, 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.05.009

Nguyen, H., Pontonnier, C., Hilt, S., Duval, T., & Dumont, G. (2017). VR-based operating modes and metaphors for collaborative ergonomic design of industrial workstations. Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces11(1), 97–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12193-016-0231-x

Rehman, U., & Cao, S. (2015, October). Augmented reality-based indoor navigation using google glass as a wearable head-mounted display. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (pp. 1452-1457). IEEE.

Rehman, U., & Cao, S. (2019). Comparative evaluation of augmented reality-based assistance for procedural tasks: a simulated control room study. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-21.

Wolfartsberger, J. (2019). Analyzing the potential of Virtual Reality for engineering design review. Automation in Construction104, 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.03.018

Atwa, S. M. H., Ibrahim, M. G., Saleh, A. M., & Murata, R. (2019). Development of sustainable landscape design guidelines for a green business park using virtual reality. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101543

Detyna, M., & Kadiri, M. (2019). Virtual reality in the HE classroom: feasibility, and the potential to embed in the curriculum. Journal of Geography in Higher Education44(3), 474–485. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2019.1700486

Keenan,  C. P., Lincoln, C., Rogers, A., Gerson, V., Wingo, J., Vasquez-Kool, M., & Blanton, R.L. (2020). The Naturalist’s Workshop: Virtual Reality Interaction with a Natural Science Educational Collection. 2020 6th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN), San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, pp. 199-204, doi: 10.23919/iLRN47897.2020.9155162.

Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Oprean, D., Wallgrün, J. O., Stubbs, C., La Femina, P., & Jackson, K. L. (2019). The value of being there: toward a science of immersive virtual field trips. Virtual Reality, 24, 753-770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00418-5

Long, L., Dabrowski, G., &  Grant, A. (2019). Using 360 Virtual Reality to Make Experiential Learning Accessible to All. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/blogs/2020/4/using-360-virtual-reality-to-make-experiential-learning-accessible-to-all

Markowitz, D., Laha, R., Perone, B., Pea, R., & Bailenson, J. (2018). Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change. Frontiers in Psychology9, 2364. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02364

Martir, T. (2020, August). Performative-R: A New Way Of Storytelling. Presented at  SIGGRAPH ’20 Talks: Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. https://doi.org/10.1145/3388767.3407367 

Abdullah, J., Mohd-Isa, W. N., & Samsudin, M. A. (2019). Virtual reality to improve group work skill and self-directed learning in problem-based learning narratives. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 461–471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00381-1 

Scavarelli, A., Arya, A., & Teather, R. J. (2020b). Virtual reality and augmented reality in social learning spaces: a literature review. Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00444-8

Alfalah, S. F. M., Falah, J. F. M., Alfalah, T., Elfalah, M., Muhaidat, N., & Falah, O. (2018). A comparative study between a virtual reality heart anatomy system and traditional medical teaching modalities. Virtual Reality, 23(3), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0359-y

Baker, S., Waycott, J., Robertson, E., Carrasco, R., Neves, B. B., Hampson, R., & Vetere, F. (2020). Evaluating the use of interactive virtual reality technology with older adults living in residential aged care. Information Processing & Management, 57(3), 102105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2019.102105

Dreimane, S., & Daniela, L. (2020). Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Mobile Applications for Learning the Anatomy of the Human Body. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09461-7

Hilty, D. M., Randhawa, K., Maheu, M. M., McKean, A. J. S., Pantera, R., Mishkind, M. C., & Rizzo, A. (2020). A Review of Telepresence, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality Applied to Clinical Care. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 5(2), 178–205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41347-020-00126-x

Javaid, M., & Haleem, A. (2020). Virtual reality applications toward medical field. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health8(2), 600–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2019.12.010

Li, L., Yu, F., Shi, D., Shi, J., Tian, Z., Yang, J., Wang, X., & Jiang, Q. (2017). Application of virtual reality technology in clinical medicine. American Journal of Translational Research9(9), 3867–3880.

Nissler, C., Nowak, M., Connan, M., Büttner, S., Vogel, J., Kossyk, I., Márton, Z., & Castellini, C. (2019). VITA—an everyday virtual reality setup for prosthetics and upper-limb rehabilitation. Journal of Neural Engineering16(2). https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aaf35f

Roswell, R., Cogburn, C., Tocco, J., Martinez, J., Bangeranye, C., Bailenson, J., ... & Smith, L. (2020). Cultivating Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Advancing Conversations About Racism, Inequity, and Climate in Medicine. Academic Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003615

Tedman, R. (2017). Reality Vs Virtual Reality: Affective Domain Learning Outcomes In Medical Anatomy Teaching. EDULEARN17 Proceedings. doi:10.21125/edulearn.2017.0344

Bekele, M. K., Pierdicca, R., Frontoni, E., Malinverni, E. S., & Gain, J. (2018). A Survey of Augmented, Virtual, and Mixed Reality for Cultural Heritage. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 11(2), 1-36. doi:10.1145/3145534

Litvak, E., & Kuflik, T. (2020). Enhancing cultural heritage outdoor experience with augmented-reality smart glasses. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-020-01366-7

Ross, M., Wallis, K., (2020). Fourth VR: Indigenous virtual reality practice. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856520943083

Botella, C., Fernández-Álvarez, J., Guillén, V., García-Palacios, A., & Baños, R. (2017). Recent progress in virtual reality exposure therapy for phobias: a systematic review. Current Psychiatry Reports19(7), 42.

Cakir, R., & Korkmaz, O. (2018). The effectiveness of augmented reality environments on individuals with special education needs. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2), 1631–1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9848-6

Lindner, P., Miloff, A., Fagernäs, S., Andersen, J., Sigeman, M., Andersson, G., … Carlbring, P. (2019). Corrigendum to “Therapist-led and self-led one-session virtual reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety with consumer hardware and software: A randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 64, 90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.04.002

Maples-Keller, J., Bunnell, B., Kim, S., & Rothbaum, B. (2017). The Use of Virtual Reality Technology in the Treatment of Anxiety and Other Psychiatric Disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry25(3), 103–113. https://doi.org/10.1097/hrp.0000000000000138

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Olson-Morrison, D. L. (2021). Virtual Reality in Social Work Education. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 232-256. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch011

Scavarelli, A., Arya, A., & Teather, R. J. (2020b). Virtual reality and augmented reality in social learning spaces: a literature review. Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00444-8

Sinha, N. (2021). Using Virtual Reality in College Student Mental Health Treatment. Current and Prospective Applications of Virtual Reality in Higher Education Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, 257-273. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4960-5.ch012

Yaremych, H. E., & Persky, S. (2019). Tracing physical behavior in virtual reality: A narrative review of applications to social psychology. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 85, 103845. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103845

Parmaxi, A. (2020). Virtual reality in language learning: a systematic review and implications for research and practice. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1765392

Abad-Segura, E., González-Zamar, M.-D., López-Meneses, E., & Vázquez-Cano, E. (2020). Financial Technology: Review of Trends, Approaches and Management. Mathematics8, 951.

Medina Herrera, L., Castro Pérez, J., & Juárez Ordóñez, S. (2019). Developing spatial mathematical skills through 3D tools: augmented reality, virtual environments and 3D printing. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing13(4), 1385–1399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12008-019-00595-2

Chien, Y.-C., Su, Y.-N., Wu, T.-T., & Huang, Y.-M. (2017). Enhancing students’ botanical learning by using augmented reality. Universal Access in the Information Society, 18(2), 231–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-017-0590-44 

Dunnagan, C. L., Dannenberg, D. A., Cuales, M. P., Earnest, A. D., Gurnsey, R. M., & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2019a). Production and Evaluation of a Realistic Immersive Virtual Reality Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experience: Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(1), 258–262. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00705

Goff, E. E., Mulvey, K. L., Irvin, M. J., & Hartstone-Rose, A. (2018). Applications of Augmented Reality in Informal Science Learning Sites: a Review. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 27(5), 433–447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9734-4

Parong, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Learning science in immersive virtual reality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(6), 785–797. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000241

Tsichouridis C., Batsila M., Vavougios D., Ioannidis G. (2020) Virtual and Augmented Reality in Science Teaching and Learning. In Auer M., Hortsch H., Sethakul P. (Eds.) The Impact of the 4th Industrial Revolution on Engineering Education. ICL 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1134. Springer, Cham. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/10.1007/978-3-030-40274-7_20 

Yoon, S., Anderson, E., Lin, J., & Elinich, K. (2017). How augmented reality enables conceptual understanding of challenging science content. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 156.

Zhou, X., Tang, L., Lin, D., & Han, W. (2020). Virtual & augmented reality for biological microscope in experiment education. Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware2(4), 316-329.

Colombo, S., & Golzio, L. (2016). The Plant Simulator as viable means to prevent and manage risk through competencies management: Experiment results. Safety Science84, 46–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.021

Makransky, G., Borre‐Gude, S., & Mayer, R. E. (2019). Motivational and cognitive benefits of training in immersive virtual reality based on multiple assessments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(6), 691–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12375

Pellas, N., Kazanidis, I., Konstantinou, N., & Georgiou, G. (2016). Exploring the educational potential of three-dimensional multi-user virtual worlds for STEM education: A mixed-method systematic literature review. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2235–2279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9537-2

Gibson, A., & O’Rawe, M. (2018). Virtual reality as a travel promotional tool: Insights from a consumer travel fair. In T. Jung & M, C. T. Dieck (Eds.) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality: Empowering Human, Place and Business (pp. 93-107). New York, NY: Springer.

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